Ionic compounds consist of two or more ions held together by electrical attraction. Ions with a positive charge are called cations while ions with a negative charge are called anions.
You will need
- Energy for dissociation
- Energy for ionization
Step 1 Vaporize Vaporize the atoms of a cation-forming element to form a gas.
Cations are usually derived from metal atoms like sodium.
Step 2 Dissociate Dissociate anion-forming molecules into atoms.
Anions are derived either from nonmetals or polyatomic compounds like chlorine molecules.
Step 3 Ionize Ionize the cation-forming atoms. With ionization, sodium becomes a positively-charged sodium ion.
Step 4 Transfer Transfer the liberated electrons to the anion-forming atoms. The chlorine atom becomes a negatively charged chlorine ion in this way.
Step 5 Combine Combine the cations and anions in a regular manner to form a crystal. Electrostatic interaction holds the crystal lattice together.
Atoms in ionic compounds combine so that they have eight electrons in their outer electron shells.