Hi, my name is Amanda Oakleaf and I am owner, head baker and decorator at Amanda Oakleaf Cakes in Winthrop, Massachusetts, where we do cupcakes, custom cakes, wedding cakes, birthday cakes, anything you can think of we can make it into a cake. And today, I'll be talking to you about baking cupcakes. So when you make vegan cupcakes, you want to replace the milk, the butter and the eggs with substitutions. For the milk, you can easily substitute an equal amount of soy milk. If the recipe calls for butter milk, you can use soy milk again but then add about a teaspoon of lemon juice to the mix and let it sit for five minutes, and that will give it the same consistency and flavor of butter milk. For the butter, we usually use a buttery substitute, a buttery spread. You could also use vegetable shortening, even oil. You can replace equal amount of shortening and buttery spread for the butter, but for the oil, you want to do one cup of butter is the same as three-quarters of a cup of oil. And then if you have eggs in the recipe, you can substitute those with oil also, but you could alos use apple sauce as the low fat alternative. The apple sauce makes a recipe a bit more moist than more dense, so you are going to need to add more baking powder to the recipe to help rise a bit more. So those are the basic vegan substitutions but also be careful if you are wanting to add other extra flavorings or additions to the recipe, you want to make sure that those are vegan too.