We can't even start to discuss tuning until we know that the archer and the bow are consistent. There's no sense of even trying to tune your bow unless you are performing perfectly.
Once you feel that you're performing perfectly then what we do is we take note of how the arrows are flying. If they are tuned, like if they are center shot, if knocking point is in the right position the arrow will come out of the bow perfectly straight, perfectly straight. If it doesn't come out of the bow perfectly straight the bow is not tuned. Or the archer and the bow aren't tuned together.
So one of the ways that you determine whether the bow is tuned or not is to shoot up close to your target. When you shoot the arrow up close to your target, if the arrow doesn't come out perfectly straight it will enter the target at an angle. The angle that it enters the target at will determine what you have to do in order to tune the bow.
For instance, if you take a shot and the arrow comes out of the bow, and when it hits the target it turns this way, that tells me that the arrow is too weak for the bow. That tells me that as the arrow comes out it's bending too much and moving to the right of the target.
If the arrow comes out of the bow and it bends this way and enters the target at this angle, that tells me that the arrow is too stiff for the bow. So therefore, you have to find the proper spined arrow for the bow. Going back to your chart, your arrow chart, you find out where this arrow was on the chart, and you move back towards a lighter or forward towards a heavier spined arrow. Until you find the proper arrow that comes out at the proper spine and enters into the target perfectly straight. If it enters perfectly straight your arrow and your bow are tuned. That's tuning the arrow.
Now, how can we do it in other ways besides just changing your arrows? You can do it by changing the weight of the points. The heavier the point the more the arrow will bend. Therefore, if you have an arrow that's too stiff, by putting a heavier weight in the front it will cause the arrow to straighten out. Another way you can do it is by putting heavier veins on the back, heavier fletching on the back, that stiffens the arrow. So if an arrow is too weak you can stiffen the arrow by putting weight on the back.