Okay. So once again I want to make the point that there's not one non-verbal indication or not one verbal indication of whether or not someone is lying. There's only non-verbals indications that are correlated with lying. So one of the things you're going to want to do is I'm telling you all of these different ways of determining whether or not someone's lying with speech. Just because somebody does it, it doesn't mean that they're lying. It can be a red flag.
So if you see a bunch of these behaviors you can say to yourself, 'Mmm. Is this an area where I might need to probe a little bit deeper?' Okay? So in terms of speech, there's a correlation between response time. One of the most interesting things with speech and lie detection is spontaneous correction. So essentially liars are less likely to correct themselves. And the reason why is because they want their presentation to be more believable so their less likely to correct themselves. Right? So if you told a story that was truthful, you don't mind going back and saying, 'You know, that wasn't true. We were there not there.' But when you're lying what to you want to do? You just want it to be flawless. So they're less likely to actually correct themselves.
Liars tend to make more errors in general. All right? So they make more errors and they usually don't correct them. Liars also tend to pause more often or say things like 'Mmm' or 'Umm'. But that doesn't mean they're lying. Some people just do that. Some people when they talk they just kind of talk like that. So you have to be careful and you usually want to see clusters of these kind of speech patterns, like three or five.
Liars also tend to be just less fluent. There's a lack of fluency in their delivery. There tends to be a lot of breaks, a lot of pauses. It doesn't come off as believable. And what's really interesting is if you see somebody who's a really good communicator and they never have problems, they talk well, they don't mess up. And then all of a sudden, during a certain area, they tend to mess up, it tends to mean something. Right? It could mean something.