The tools and techniques for cutting hair. The tools: scissors, razor, and thinning shears.
Techniques for cutting hair are really boiled down to three techniques. One length where everything is brought to the same length, and brought down quite heavy, but everything is clean and one length. Layering hair, the second technique we talk about is for removing weight. So, layering is, by definition, a removal of weight. The third technique, graduation, that's something that is used when we want to build up weight, and we want to get heavy, kind of swingy type of movement in the hair.
Once you've mastered the three techniques of cutting hair, then perhaps you're ready to go on to the more advanced techniques which would include: texturizing, disconnection, using a mixture of graduation and layers in the same haircut. You could also do a one length hair with a layered bang area. You could do lots of different things, but the three fundamental techniques of cutting hair are one length, layering, and graduation. One length, layering - removal of weight, and graduation - build up of weight. Once you've got all those down then have fun with your advanced techniques.