There are a lot of unfamiliar terms in quilting, but once you get the hang of it, it all becomes rather clear.
Here we have a completed sampler quilt. You know it's completed because it has a back, and it's got a binding on the edge. There's no raw edges anywhere. It's a sampler quilt because each block is different.
But this is a log cabin block. It's a very old, traditional block. And here we have an eight pointed star. In between the blocks, this green strip, this is called sashing, that separates the blocks. The small, gold strip is a thin, inner border, and the larger red strip is an outer border. That's the backing, and it's a little hard to tell, because she's used the same fabric and it's the same color, but the covering strip on the edge is called the binding.
That's the basic terminology that you would use for describing a quilt. However, there are lots of other terms that are a little more complicated. Fat quarters, stitch in the ditch, stipple quilting, all these things will become clear, as you investigate the world of quilting. There are many places to learn.
Lots of towns around the country have stores like this, quilt stores, and they always have lessons, or there's plenty of books. There's always the Internet. There's no end to the learning you can do.