The basics of UX design, or User Experience design is a pretty big umbrella term that basically states, how am I designing for the user experience? How am I basically connecting the human with the computer and dictating what their interaction is going to be like, or to look like?
User experience design is not only about visual design, which in this term is the front end, but actually has a lot to do with research, so you're researching the company. You're researching their analytics, you're researching their history, you're researching their competitors. You're researching their target audience, and then you're also looking at their current content.
In looking at their current content, you do information architecture, which is also underneath user experience, so in information architecture you're basically re-organizing their current content to fit their audience better, or to fit what exactly they're trying to do better.
So after you do that, the next phase in that is actually what would be called the UX, and that's wire framing. Wire framing is when you do boxes and everything is in black and white, and no visual design is applied but you're basically trying to understand a general sense of how is the user going to respond to the navigation? How is the user going to respond to which page comes after the About Us, or which page comes after a certain image? You're basically trying to dictate how you feel like the user is going to interact with a page, and then get all those things in alignment by either creating a clickable prototype, a prototype that shows where the user is going to go, or even do user testing, which can be on or off-line, and that means online where as you can sense eye movement, and you can sense what they're clicking on, and what they're clicking on next after they click on something, which Google Analytics tracks, and that's a free service.
Or you're doing it offline, where you're doing it in a room and looking at them as they're interacting with the site that you created. So user experience design is actually pretty much the back end, making sure that all the bare bones, all the skeletons, everything is falling together before you apply the skin and some clothes.