So there are different types of bread and different types of dough depending on what you want to use your bread for. The main category of bread falls into straight dough. A straight dough is basically a dough that doesn't have any fat in it. So a sourdough would be a straight dough or a baguette would be a straight dough. Straight dough is generally flour, water, salt and yeast.
The next type of dough is called an enriched dough and that simply means that fat has been added to the dough, in some way or another to enrich it. So an enriched dough, an example would be a brioche where butter is added and eggs which also contain fat are added to the dough. Challah is another example of enriched dough. It's enriched with oil. The third type of dough is flat dough, like a flat bread or something that doesn't contain yeast, that is more like a cracker dough. Those are the three main types of dough.