Most commonly testicular cancer usually presents with a mass that appears within the testicle. There may be things that occur that draw the patient's attention to that mass, for example pain or discomfort in the groin area or trauma. Sometimes people have trauma to the area and all of a sudden it draws attention to the area, and they examine themselves or someone examines that area, and they feel a firm, solid mass within the testicle. That is the classic appearance of testicular cancer.
Until proven otherwise, any solid, firm mass within the testicle should be considered as a potential cancer although there are other things that can cause similar findings. That's one of the more common presentations.
Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body including the abdominal area, the chest, and various other areas. When it does do that, then patients may notice symptoms due to the spread of cancer to those sites. For example, when cancer spreads to the lungs, patients may have shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
Cancer can spread through the lymphatic channels to lymph nodes in the body. Sometimes if there's extensive spread, patients may feel lumps in the neck area or the groin areas, various other parts of the body, that may signify the presence of cancer. In general, most of those cases, most cases of testicular cancer will also have some form of a mass within the testicle itself. It's not always a 100% guarantee but most commonly that's the way it presents.